What were the key elements in postponing death?

An analysis paper is not simply a summary of the film, but rather an analysis of how the film sheds light on topics discussed in your readings ( READING outline I have provide on the bottom!!!) and in class. It addresses not only how the film illustrates course concepts but also how it may further expand our understanding and raise important questions.

Format Guidelines:

• Each analysis should be no more than two double-spaced pages with one inch margins, be free of grammar and spelling errors, and utilize proper American Sociological Association citation practices.

• Papers that show evidence of plagiarism will automatically receive a zero and cannot be made up.

• Your analysis paper should have an introduction and a thesis that addresses your conceptualization of the interaction between the film and course content.

• The remainder of the paper should illustrate this interaction in an organized fashion while demonstrating that you have carefully read the course materials and utilized specific examples from the film to illustrate these course concepts.

• The paper should not be a list of all the times the film illustrated examples from class, but rather a focused discussion of a few key scenes and how they illustrate course concepts.

• In discussing the interaction between the film and course concepts you should also leave space for a critique of the film and/or the course materials. What issues or examples does the film raise that may challenge key concepts or theories that you have read in your text? There is also a goal or agenda to any documentary, in the pursuit of this goal/agenda, does the film neglect critical aspects of the theories or concepts that you have read?

• You should end your analysis with a brief conclusion and personal reflection on the implications of the film. You may consider different levels of implications (individual-level, family-level, country-level, continent or global-level); you may also want to consider the implications for policy both at home and abroad.

FILM : http://watchdocumentary.org/watch/the-age-of-aids-episode-2-video_b8acdae88.html



********WRITE THIS FILM: “THE AGE OF AIDS (VOLUME2)” Two million have HIV by 1985, most in Africa*********************


Chapter ouline

? Defining the Health and Mortality Transition

? Health and Mortality Changes Over Time

? Life Span and Longevity

? Disease and Death Over the Life Cycle

? Causes of Poor Health and Death

? Measuring Mortality

? Health and Mortality Inequalities

Mortality tasnsition

? Health and death are two sides of morbidity and mortality.

? Morbidity refers to the prevalence of disease in a population.

? Mortality refers to the pattern of death.

? The health and mortality transition-the shift from prevailing poor health and high death rates from infectious diseases occurring especially among the young, to prevailing good health and low deaths rates from infectious diseases, with most people dying at older ages from degenerative diseases.

Industrial Revolution to the Twentieth Century

? By the early 19th century, after the plague and Little Ice Age had receded and as increasing income improved nutrition, housing, and sanitation, life expectancy in Europe and the U.S. was approximately 40 years.

? There were as many deaths to children under 5 as there were at 65 and over.

? Infectious diseases were still the dominant reasons for death, but their ability to kill was diminishing.

? What were the key elements in postponing death?

20 centry

? Health as a social movement

? Antibiotics

? More vaccinations

? Oral rehydration therapy for infants

? Advanced diagnoses, drugs and other treatments for degenerative diseases to keep older people alive longer

Responding dealth

? There are two ways to postpone death to the oldest possible ages:

? Prevent diseases from occurring or from spreading when they do occur (vaccinations, clean water, sanitation and good nutrition—no physicians needed).

? Curing people of disease when they are sick (diagnostic technology, drugs, skilled physicians).

? Women (sex) have a lower probability of death at every age from the moment of conception…

? …unless society intervenes with a lower status for women (gender) that gives them less food, less access to health care, etc.

Cause of poor health and dealth

? The World Health Organization puts deaths into one of three major categories:

1. Communicable

? bacterial [e.g. tuberculosis]

? viral [e.g. measles]

? protozoan [e.g. malaria)

? maternal conditions

? Lack of prenatal care

? Delivering somewhere besides a hospital

? Seeking an unsafe abortion

? perinatal (“surrounding birth”—just before and just after birth) conditions

? nutritional deficiencies

2. Noncommunicable diseases

3. injuries

? The crude death rate (CDR) is the total number of deaths in a year divided by the average total population. In general form:

CDR=d / p x 1,000

? The age/sex-specific death rate (nMx or ASDR) is measured as follows:

nMx = ndx / npx x 100,000

? Expectation of life at birth, or more generally life expectancy, is derived from the life table.

Health and Mortality Inequalities

? Urban and Rural Differentials

? Urban now better than rural.

? Neighborhood Inequalities

? Slums are bad for your health.

? Educational Differentials

? The better educated live longer.

? Social Status Differentials

? The rich live longer.

? Race and Ethnicity Differentials

? Being different will be used against you.

? Marital Status

? Being married is good for your health.

Occupational Differentials in Mortality

? Among white American men aged 25 to 64 when they died in 1960, mortality rates for laborers were 19% above average, while those for professional men were 20% below average.

? Researchers followed a group of 12,000 civil servants in London who were first interviewed in 1967–69 when they were 40 to 64.

? They were tracked for the next 10 years, and it was clear that after adjusting for age and sex, the higher the pay grade, the lower the death rate.

Marital Status

? It has long been observed that married people tend to live longer than unmarried people.

? One explanation is that marriage is selective of healthy people; that is, people who are physically handicapped or in ill health may have both a lower chance of marrying and a higher risk of death.

? Another explanation is that marriage is good for your health.


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