Geology


Geology

 

 

 

Questions for Review

What types of natural disasters killed the most people in the past 40 years? Where in the world are deaths from natural disasters the highest? Where in the world are insurance losses from natural disasters the highest?

 

What is a great natural disaster?

 

What is the difference between a natural disaster and a natural hazard? How do economic losses differ from insured losses?

 

For nations, what is the relationship between natural-disaster deaths, gross domestic product, and level of democracy?

 

What is the relationship between the magnitude of a given disaster and its frequency of occurrence?

 

Draw a curve showing the world population of humans in the past 100,000 years. Why has the curve changed shape so dramatically?

 

Explain the concept of exponential growth.

 

 

What are the population doubling times given these annual growth rates: Africa, 2.4%; world, 1.2%?

 

For nations, what are demographic transitions?

 

How much time does it take for a flu pandemic to infect people all around the world?

 

What is the relationship between earthquake fatalities and cities?

 

Chapter 2 questions

Questions for Review

Describe how Earth became segregated into layers of differing density.

 

How did Earth’s continents, oceans, and atmosphere form?

 

Describe some examples of isostasy.

 

What energy sources caused the interior of the early Earth to heat up?

 

How does nuclear fusion differ from nuclear fission?

 

What is the age of Earth? How is this determined?

 

After freeing zircon crystals from an igneous rock, how could you determine when the rock formed (solidified)?

 

Where are the oldest known Earth rocks found? How old are they?

 

What are the differences between brittle, ductile, and elastic behavior?

 

Draw and label a cross-section that explains the tectonic cycle.

 

Explain some other evidence indicating that seafloors spread.

 

What is a tectonic plate?

 

What are the ages of the oldest (a) rocks on the continents, and (b) rocks making up the ocean floor?

 

Explain several lines of evidence indicating that the continents move about Earth.

 

Describe a deep-ocean trench. How does one form?

 

Why do deep earthquakes tend to occur within inclined bands?

 

Draw a cross-section that shows a hot spot and plume. How do they help determine the directions of plate motions?

 

How is Earth’s magnetic field formed? Describe the reversals of magnetic polarity from north to south.

 

Explain the concept of uniformitarianism.

Chapter 6 questions

Questions for Review

Mount Vesuvius is one of the world’s most active volcanoes, yet it has quiet intervals lasting how long? Compare the times between major eruptions to a human life span.

 

Sketch a map of an idealized tectonic plate and evaluate the volcanic hazards along each type of plate edge.

 

What percentage of magma erupted each year comes out at spreading centers? At subduction zones? At hot spots?

 

What changes in temperature, pressure, and water content cause hot rock to melt? What are the two most relevant melting agents?

 

What common elements combine to form most igneous rocks?

 

What minerals combine to form most igneous rocks?

 

Contrast the differences between basaltic and rhyolitic magma in terms of SiO2 percentage, weight % water content, temperature, viscosity, and mode of gas escape.

 

How does explosiveness vary between magmas that have a low versus a high weight % content of water?

 

If gas escapes easily from a magma, will the eruption be peaceful or explosive? If gas cannot escape easily, will the eruption be peaceful or explosive?

 

Volcanoes in the ocean tend to erupt peacefully, whereas volcanoes on continents tend to erupt explosively. What explains the differences?

 

Why do volcanoes above subduction zones erupt more explosively than volcanoes at spreading centers?

 

What determines whether volcanic activity will be a lava flow or a pyroclastic eruption?

 

Which magma will make a better lava flow—basalt or rhyolite?

 

Draw a cross-section illustrating a Plinian eruption.

 

Explain the factors controlling the volcanic explosivity index (VEI).

 

Play the three Vs game. Pick various low, medium, and high values for viscosity, volatiles, and volume, and then describe the resultant eruption styles and volcanic landforms.

 

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